The first ever webcam technology was installed at Cambridge University in 1991 on … a coffee maker. Thanks to her, university staff could see if their coffee was brewed or not. Laziness is the engine of progress 🙂 A device that recorded an image with a resolution of 128×128 pixels was connected to the network in 1993. Eight years later, the famous coffee maker was sold at an online auction for about 204,000 rubles. (Photo: mofetos / flikr.com).
Disable the World Wide Web entirely is impossible
So, at least, consider many experts. In support of their words, they cite the following thesis: The Internet cannot be turned off entirely, since network routers do not have a single external control.However, in 2012, the popular hacker group Anonymous promised to “put” the entire Internet in the world, killing 13 root DNS servers. This attempt failed to succeed, confirming the well-known domestic Internet portal Habrahabr: “The caching system works in such a way that even if all 13 servers are completely disabled (dozens of data centers are in fact, so the possibility is purely hypothetical) To completely cut off all requests, it is required to flood the root servers for 48 hours. ” . The last time an attack was launched on the DNS infrastructure (in 2007), the attackers managed to make inaccessible only 2 of the 13 root servers.
From Nuclear Research to the world wide web
The idea of combining computers into a network, as everyone knows, was born in the depths of the United States Agency for Advanced Defense Research and Development (DARPA) in 1957. But the HTTP protocol itself and the HTML language — what we call the Internet today — are by-products of the research of the European Council on Nuclear Research (CERN). All the same Tim Berners-Lee (Tim Berners-Lee) in 1989 proposed to improve the internal CERN workflow through hyperlinks, and it was this secondary project that later became the World Wide Web
Google was made by a mistake
When Larry Page and Sergey Brin came up with the name of a new search engine, they wanted to express in it a huge amount of information that the system is capable of processing. Their colleague suggested the word “googol” – so in mathematics is called the number of one with one hundred consecutive zeros. He immediately checked the domain name for employment and, having discovered that it was free, registered it. And in the spelling of the word, he made a mistake: instead of the correct “googol.com” he entered “google.com”, but Larry liked the newly invented word and established itself as a name.
Worldwide, there are almost four billion active email accounts. About 190 billion messages are sent from them every day. According to research, 80 percent of these messages can be simple spam. Also interesting is the story of the appearance of the word spam, which originates from the name of the canned meat trademark “Spam”, which has become known for its annoying ads.
Next generation robots
Mankind has long dreamed of a world where robots perform various daily work. However, this future does not come. Robots work mainly in manufacturing and other controlled tasks.
The development of technology in robotics makes possible the interaction of man and machine. Robots in flexibility and adaptability are becoming more like human bodies. Robots have more opportunities when using cloud computing, instead of working autonomously.
The robots have moved from the assembly shops, for example, to farm fields, where automatic tractors operate using GPS. In Japan, nurse robots help people with disabilities.
In fact, robots are ideal for repetitive or dangerous tasks, they can work without rest and their maintenance costs less than the salary of a person. But in the future, robots are unlikely to completely replace a person – rather, they will work with him. Despite all the advances in artificial intelligence, people will need to control the work of robots.
There are concerns that robots may deprive people of work. But from the experience of previous automation, it is clear that as a result, an increase in productivity led to an increase that benefited the economy. However, the next generation of robots will raise new issues in different areas – philosophy, anthropology and other aspects of human relationships with machines.
Genetic manipulation technologies
Regarding genetic modifications are constantly debating. But new technologies will allow direct editing of the genetic code of plants in order to give them the various properties we need.
Now this technology is based on the ability of agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria to transfer the desired DNA. In the scientific community, everyone agrees that such genetic engineering is not at all more dangerous than conventional selection. But lately more convenient technologies have appeared.
These are ZFN, TALENS and the CRISPR-Cas9 system – the protective mechanism of bacteria against viruses. It uses an RNA molecule to modify DNA. So you can turn off the unnecessary gene or change it in an manner indistinguishable from the natural mutation. Also, this system allows you to add new DNA sequences or whole genes.
Another technology is RNA interference in crops. It helps fight fungus, viruses and parasites, thus reducing the amount of pesticides required. For more than ten years, viral genes have been used in Hawaii to protect papayas from ring blotch. This technology can protect wheat, rice, potatoes and bananas from their specific diseases. These innovations will be especially useful for farmers managing small farms in developing countries.