interesting facts about black holes

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black hole

No plans for landing on other planets

First of all, it is unclear what kind of equations in question. The equations of the general theory of relativity are already known, so it cannot be them. Most likely, I mean an explanation of gravity through quantum mechanics, which the string theory and loop quantum theory of gravity are trying to give. At a minimum, many explanations are required for this explanation.

Regarding the way Professor Brand decides it: theoretical physics is done differently. You can not sit for several years and make notes on a piece of paper. Why should he not communicate with colleagues working in the same direction? Where are his graduate students? Why doesn’t he have interns and students? A lone scientist is a common, but incorrect stereotype.

Space travel is not done suddenly. In real life, all the accidents that may occur on the path of the space mission would have been provided for before sending to Saturn. Yes, when sending it was a rush, but they had two years in a spacecraft and the opportunity to consult with earth scientists. If the world had an extra dimension, it is quite possible that gravity would be due to it. With his help, time travel could be explained. But we have no evidence of other dimensions.

Black holes that looks like this

Supermassive black holes belong to rather widespread celestial bodies in our Universe. One of them is located in the center of our galaxy – the Milky Way, and almost all galaxies have black holes at their center. A black hole simulation for the film was made by a group of university scientists under the direction of Kip Thorn.

Light around the hole is not shown randomly. The black hole with its gravity causes the rays of light to bend, so that directly next to it a “Einshetin ring” is formed. When approaching a hole, we most likely would really see the light around it, as well as the accretion disk of matter absorbed by the black hole.

An artificial mole hole that looks like this

A wormhole or wormhole is a tunnel that allows passage through space and time to other parts of the universe. The general theory of relativity allows their existence.

But we must understand that it is impossible to create a wormhole without changes in our basic ideas about physics. In particular, it is necessary to use matter with a negative mass, which is difficult even to imagine. Kip Thorne is one of the best wormhole specialists in the world, so his guesses can be considered the most reliable source on this topic. At the same time, we do not know much. Will the changed space-time structure rupture a spacecraft?

On a planet spinning around a black hole, time slows down

Gravity near massive objects distorts not only space, but also time. If we had sufficiently accurate measuring devices, we would have noticed that time flows a little slower on the surface of the Earth than on a high tower. If the planet rotated around the black hole so closely and did not fall apart (we will return to this later), then perhaps the time would go on it as slowly as shown in the film.

But a zone beyond which the time dilation suddenly ceased to act could not exist. The effect of gravity would disappear gradually.

This is possible, although not with today’s technology. New Horizons spacecraft reached the orbit of Saturn in two years, but he had no goal to reach the surface of the planet. A two-year journey would have been possible if Endurance had been designed specifically to be sent to the wormhole at exactly the correct rate, otherwise this would require too advanced technology.

 

The planet rotates around the black hole

This seems unlikely. Suppose the planet quickly rotates around a black hole, whose mass is one hundred times the mass of the Sun. It will be very quickly broken by tidal force – the difference in gravity on the outer and inner sides of the planet.

In addition, such a planet would be scorched by radiation and would suffer from collisions with other bodies, attracted by a black hole. The planet could not form near a black hole, and if it were attracted to it, it would not rotate in a stable orbit. It must be remembered that there would be no sunlight on it – the accretion disk produces a large amount of X-ray radiation, but not light.

And finally, if such a planet existed, the landing and take-off of a spacecraft would be almost impossible. Landing from the orbit of the planet would require to overcome the attraction of a black hole – the ship would simply tear it away and throw it beyond the event horizon, into the center of the hole. To take off, it would be necessary to develop a speed close to the speed of light.

If the mass of the planet is 130% of the Earth’s and its surface is covered with water, the waves from the wind will be no more than the waves in the Earth’s oceans. Tsunamis appear only as a result of tectonic activity and cannot be regular. The force of attraction of a black hole also does not explain them: a black hole would stretch the planet itself to the sides. In the book “The Science of Interstellar,” Kip Thorn says that the waves arise from the movements of the planet itself. But we do not see the currents in the film – so where does the additional amount of water come from?